White-Collar Crime in the United States

Michael Diaz, Jr. and Javier Coronado answer 28 questions about white collar crime in the USA for The Legal 500 Country Comparative Guides.
1. What are the key financial crime offences applicable to companies and their directors and officers? (E.g. Fraud, money laundering, false accounting, tax evasion, market abuse, corruption, sanctions.) Please explain the governing laws or regulations.
2. Can corporates be held criminally liable? If yes, how is this determined/attributed?
3. What are the commonly prosecuted offences personally applicable to company directors and officers?
4. Who are the lead prosecuting authorities which investigate and prosecute financial crime and what are their responsibilities?